On Tuesday the Kansas City Star published the final installment of “Beef’s Raw Edges,” its three-day investigative series examining the current state of the U.S. beef industry. The project was spearheaded by Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter Mike McGraw. The work follows a yearlong investigation during which The Star was given rare access to the processing plants of two of the four major U.S. beef suppliers, as well as packing plants and a large-scale cattle feedlot. The resulting stories highlight issues such as non-therapeutic antibiotic use in livestock, the industry’s funding and propagation of pro-beef research and the safety risks of mechanically tenderized steak. The Star’s investigation into mechanical tenderization determined that the use of the technology exposes consumers to an increased risk of foodborne illness. A significant amount of beef consumed in the U.S. is sent through a machine with dozens of needles or blades that puncture and sometimes marinate the steak in an effort to improve the texture of cuts sometimes considered cheaper and tougher. When the steaks are punctured, however, fecal contaminants on the surface may get driven down further into the meat. If these steaks are cooked on the rarer side, pathogens such as E. coli have the chance to survive within them and eventually infect diners. In many cases, consumers, restaurant staff and supermarket managers do not know — and cannot tell — when a steak has been mechanically tenderized. A 2008 U.S. Department of Agriculture survey found that 90 percent of beef producers are using the technique on at least some cuts, though the practice does not require any additional labeling. Speaking to The Star, Margaret Lamkin said she had no idea the steak she ordered from an Applebee’s restaurant three years ago was mechanically tenderized. She fell ill with a severe E. coli O157:H7 infection several days later. The 90-year-old grandmother must now wear a colostomy bag for the rest of her life. Ashley Ashbrook, a 17-year-old high school senior, also faced a difficult ordeal when she contracted an E. coli infection after eating a medium-rare steak at another Applebee’s. That steak, too, was tenderized without the knowledge of Ashbrook or her parents. Ashbrook’s illness developed into hemolytic uremic syndrome, a kidney disease associated with severe E. coli infections. Three years later, she still suffers from high blood pressure and anemia, along with kidney abnormalities. The Star’s McGraw told Food Safety News that the paper’s investigation unfolded during a fascinating year for the beef industry. Cattle herds were at their smallest since the 1950s. Beef prices were on the rise. And then there was the controversy over lean finely-textured beef — the product derided as ‘pink slime’ — that hijacked mainstream headlines shortly after The Star’s research began. “I should point out that I’m not a vegetarian or a vegan,” McGraw added. “I love beef.” The beef industry, however, may not be feeling the love. On Monday American Meat Institute President J. Patrick Boyle issued a statement reacting to the series, calling it “a huge disappointment.” “This was truly unprecedented access to the industry and its operations,” Boyle wrote. “Industry executives provided countless interviews. AMI did its best to answer any question posed and even plotted charts when asked for additional data presented in ways that we didn’t have readily available.” “We believed that by cooperating, he would see what we saw: a beef industry that provides the safest and most affordable beef supply in the world,” Boyle continued. “We know that we cannot rest on the progress achieved and must always strive to do better, but we find it impossible to reconcile the conclusions reached by the Star with data from CDC, FSIS, OSHA and other agencies.” McGraw said he did not want to contest the AMI’s statement. The Star provides responses from industry spokespeople within its featured articles. Accompanying the feature on mechanical tenderization is a response that highlights the millions of dollars industry has invested in reducing E. coli contamination rates. According to federal data, E. coli contamination rates in ground beef fell 72 percent between 2000 and 2010, while infections in humans fell 52 percent from 2000 to 2011. McGraw said The Star was upfront with its industry subjects when first contacting them about access to their facilities and records. “I was very clear with the industry early on,” he said. “I said ‘I’ve got a year to look at the beef industry. I don’t really know yet what I’m going to find or what I’m going to do. I’ll tell you right now that I’ll likely trip across some things you won’t like me writing about, but if you want to help me with this I would be appreciative.'” Spokespeople for the AMI did not respond to an inquiry from Food Safety News for further comment. The USDA is currently conducting an assessment of mechanically tenderized beef to estimate the true risk associated with the product, but so far all findings remain under wraps. McGraw said he calls the USDA every day to ask about that assessment. It’s part of a job that fewer journalists are able to undertake these days. “I think that consumers and the food industry would benefit from more journalism,” McGraw said. “I think it’s a shame that we used to have agriculture reporters at most daily newspapers in the Midwest and we don’t anymore.”

  • The Kansas City Star is an excellent publication, and the series was extremely well done.  This type of work is where journalism truly shines.

    This is a good follow-up article, too, providing post publication reactions–another important component of journalism. 

    • Bobbi Scott

      Quality Assurance is a high priority for packing plants.
      Like most media, McGraw took the truth and twisted it to make a hot story. Negative media sells. Meat tenderization is done in a sanitary environment. It is done to make every quality of meat (prime, chose, select, ect.) more palatable. A closer look at what is happening when the meat is at those specific Apple Bee’s restraints would have been a better approach, instead of blaming the Beef Industry.

      • Uh huh. Sure. 

      • Bobbi- tenderization is normally done to more exercised muscle meats such as the quarter, and chuck. It would be very rare indeed to see a prime or choice steak for that matter tenderized.

  • Bobbi Scott

    Quality assurance is a high priority for packing plants. Like most media, McGraw took the truth and twisted it to make a hot story. Negative media sells. Meat tenderization is done in a sanitary environment. It is done to make every quality of meat (prime, chose, select, ect.) more palatable for consumers. A closer look at what is happening at those specific Applebee’s restaurants would have been a better approach, instead of blaming food poisoning on the Beef Industry.A positive article about what the industry is doing to create E. coli contamination rates to fall 72 percent would be a worth reading.Over all, I’ve been very disappointed with McGraw and the Kansas City Star’s negative journalism. One wasted year and nothing really gained by anyone. This was a loose-loose investigative series.

    • flameforjustice

      I’m NOT disappointed in the Star and certainly not Mike McGraw.He investigated and reported what he saw/learned both negative and positive about the beef industry.

      • No he reported what he wanted to write to sell a story as usual. Did he bother to look up statistics on E. coli? They have been dropping for decades. He highlights everything he thinks is wrong, even if its been proven scientifically safe, this guy couldn’t raise livestock if he wanted to.

  • flameforjustice

    I personally will use this forum to to express how I feel about Mr.Mike McGraw.Mr. McGraw thank you very much on your year long task of investigating the USA beef industry.I’m very thankful on be half of all beef eaters who really are concerned and/or care about the safety of the beef they eat and give to their families and people they care about.ps I don’t eat beef,but have many loved ones who do.

  • flameforjustice

    The beef industry is huge and has the finances and political backing to wage a media campaign for eating  beef and beef safety.This one series will not hurt the beef industry.The beef industry is harming cattle,harming humans and harming the enviroment by becoming an INDUSTRY. That in itself caused the down fall if there is a downfall. Large corporations,having large farms,large feed lots,etc. and getting rid of small farms raising safe,healthy,disease free, drug free,free roaming,grass fed,humanely treated cattle for beef consumation made these issues that concern the consumers of beef and bought the attention of Mike McGraw and theKansas Star.

    • 97% of farms are family owned, you assume having a small farm means the food is safer an assumption which isn’t correct.