II International Conference on Antimicrobial Research (ICAR2012), which will be held in Lisbon (Portugal), during 21-23 November 2012. ICAR2012 will be a forum for the presentation, exchange and dissemination of information and experiences on anti-microbe strategies, in biotic or abiotic environments, in planktonic or adhered states, in biologically specific or unspecific ways, in vitro or in vivo, in a general context marked by the threat posed by the increasing antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic microorganisms. “Anti” is here taken in a wide sense as “against cell cycle, adhesion, or communication”, when harmful for the human health, industry or economy (infectious diseases, chemotherapy, food, biomedicine, agriculture, livestock, biotechnology, water systems…). It will cover topics on antimicrobial resistance, (early) microbial and resistance detection, enhancement of innate defenses against pathogens, as well as methods & techniques. http://www.formatex.org/icar2012/